We are exploring known kimberlites – volcanic rock that can sometimes contain diamonds. Bulk sampling began in early June 2019 and we are using a large scale trench cutter – previous drilling methods caused breakage of larger stones and likely undersampled diamonds – to sample large volumes of kimberlite to depths of up to 250 metres.
FalCon is still in early stage exploration and we will continue drilling, sampling and community engagement through 2020.
Jadar has been ranked as one of the largest lithium deposits in the world. If developed, it has the potential to supply a significant percentage of global demand for lithium, an important component of batteries.
The project is currently in the pre-feasibility stage.
Since the beginning of the project, we have been working closely with the Serbian government and local officials to ensure the project moves forward responsibly and in a manner that benefits the surrounding communities.
In addition to technology already in use across Rio Tinto, such as autonomous trucks, trains and drills, the design of the Koodaideri mine uses an increased level of automation and digitisation, including advanced data analytics.
Significant innovations include a digital replica of the processing plant, accessible in real time by workers in the field, fully integrated mine automation and simulation systems, and an automated workshop.
With more than 70 design innovations in scope, Koodaideri will set a benchmark for our industry in terms of automation and the use of data – making mining safer and more productive.
In early 2020, we secured funding approval for the development of a 34 megawatt, 105 hectare solar photovoltaic (PV) plant at our Koodaideri mine - an important step in reducing our carbon footprint in the Pilbara. The Solar PV plant will deliver approximately 65 per cent of Koodaideri's average electricity demand once operational. During peak operations, the plant will provide 100 per cent of Koodaideri's electricity needs.
First production is expected in late 2021. Once complete, the mine is expected to have an annual capacity of 43 million tonnes.
Oyu Tolgoi Underground
The Oyu Tolgoi copper mine in Mongolia is a world-class open pit mine and underground project. More than 80% of Oyu Tolgoi’s total value lies deep underground. We are building an underground mine complex, using block-caving mining techniques to extract the ore and transport it to the surface.
In November 2019, we achieved a significant milestone with the completion of Shaft 2 construction. Shaft 2, a 10 metre diameter shaft sunk to approximately 1.3 kilometres below the surface, has now entered into the final stages of commissioning. Shaft 2 significantly improves overall productivity of the underground development and allows us to move more material, equipment and people between the surface and underground.
Enhanced geotechnical information and data modelling suggests that there may be some stability risks identified with the approved mine design and several other mine design options are being considered.
The mine design will be finalised in the first half of 2020 and a definitive estimate of cost and schedule for project completion will be released in the second half of 2020.
At full production, the underground mine is expected to produce 95,000 tonnes of ore daily.
Resolution Copper will rely on a technique called block caving to extract the deposit that lies more than 2,000 metres deep. This technique uses gravity to help extract the ore and is the most viable way to recover the resource.
Work to restore the historic number nine shaft, initially constructed in 1971, was completed in 2018. The team is now sinking the shaft to over 2700 metres below ground and linking it with the newer number 10 shaft. The work is on track for completion in early 2021.
In 2019, the project achieved a significant milestone – the release of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) by the US Forest Service (USFS). The DEIS reflects years of extensive engagement with the local community and thorough study by the USFS. In anticipation of the final EIS, Resolution Copper will continue underground development, conduct extensive drilling and orebody testing, plus maintain the permitting and public engagement process.
We are conducting cultural heritage surveys with the Traditional Owners and preliminary technical studies have begun, including environmental baseline studies, geotechnical and metallurgical test work.
In 2019, we approved the next stage of the development of Richards Bay Minerals (RBM), in South Africa: the construction of the Zulti South project. The $463 million investment (our share is $343 million) will sustain RBM’s current capacity and extend the life of the mine.
RBM currently operates four mines in the Zulti North lease area, a mineral separation plant and smelting facility. The Zulti South mine will underpin RBM’s supply of zircon and ilmenite and the first commercial production is expected in late 2021.
The Zulti South project will create economic opportunity for the region, with more than 97% of the total spend expected to be in South Africa.