Aerial photo of vehicles driving on dirt road towards Pic de Fon from Canga East Camp, Simandou, Guinea


Our projects across the world

Australian Scandium Project

New South Wales, Australia

We’ve invested in the Australian Scandium Project in New South Wales, Australia, one of the world's highest-grade primary scandium oxide resources. It can potentially be the first primary scandium production site outside of Asia. This scalable resource is our second scandium project – in 2022, we produced the first batch of high-purity scandium oxide at our commercial-scale demonstration plant at Sorel-Tracy in Canada, making us the first North American producer of this critical mineral.

The Scandium Project site
Scandium Project, New South Wales, Australia



The Jadar project in Serbia is one of the world’s largest greenfield lithium projects. The scale and high-grade nature of the Jadar deposit provides the potential for a mine to supply lithium into the electric vehicle value chain for decades.

The Board committed funding in July 2021, subject to receiving all relevant approvals, permits and licences. We are focused on consultation with all stakeholders to explore all options following the Government of Serbia's cancellation of the Spatial Plan in January 2022.

Jadar Valley
Jadar, Serbia

Kennecott underground project

Utah, US

In June 2023 we approved $498 million of funding to deliver underground development and infrastructure for an area known as the North Rim Skarn (NRS). Production from the NRS will commence in 2024 and is expected to ramp up over 2 years, to deliver around 250,000 tonnes of additional mined copper over the next 10 years alongside open cut operations.

In September 2022, we approved development capital totalling $55 million to start underground mining in an area known as the Lower Commercial Skarn (LCS). Underground production within LCS started in February 2023, and is expected to deliver a total of around 30 thousand tonnes of additional mined copper through the period to 20271. These 2 investments will support Kennecott in building a world class underground mine.

Machinery at Kennecott underground project
Kennecott, United States


Inhambane, Mozambique

We conducted exploration activities in relation to the Chilubane, Dongane and Jangamo mineral sands prospects in Mozambique – collectively known as the Mutamba Project – under a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) with the Ministry of Mineral Resources and Energy of the Republic of Mozambique from 2015 to 2018.

In line with this MoU, Rio Tinto and Savannah Resources Plc and AME East Africa Limited (a subsidiary of Savannah) agreed to establish the Mutamba Project Joint Venture to develop the resource.

Mutamba non-managed operation
Mutamba, Mozambique

Oyu Tolgoi Underground

Khanbogd, Mongolia

The Oyu Tolgoi copper mine in Mongolia is a world-class open pit mine and underground project. More than 80% of Oyu Tolgoi’s total value lies deep underground. We are building an underground mine complex, that will use block-caving mining techniques to extract the ore and transport it to the surface.

In March 2023 we marked the start of first sustainable production from the OT underground mine in Mongolia, which will make OT one of the most important producers of copper in the world. At full production, OT’s underground and open cut mines will produce enough copper annually for more than 6 million electric vehicles.

At peak production, Oyu Tolgoi is expected to operate in the first quartile of the copper cash cost curve2. Oyu Tolgoi is expected to produce around 500,000 tonnes3 of copper per year on average from 2028 to 2036 from the open pit and underground, compared to 130,000 tonnes in 2022 (open pit)4.

By 2030, Oyu Tolgoi is expected to be the fourth largest copper mine in the world. It is a complex greenfield project comprising an underground block cave mine and copper concentrator as well as an open pit mine which has been successfully operating for almost ten years. It is one of the most modern, safe, sustainable and water-efficient operations globally, with a workforce which is more than 97% Mongolian.

Aerial shot, Oyu Tolgoi
Oyu Tolgoi, Mongolia


Arizona, US

The Resolution Copper project is a proposed underground copper mine in the Copper Triangle, approximately 60 miles east of Phoenix, Arizona, in western United States.

Resolution has the potential to supply up to 25% of US copper demand, and create several thousand direct and indirect jobs.

Resolution Copper will rely on a technique called caving to extract the deposit that lies more than 2,000 metres deep. This technique uses gravity to help extract the ore and is the most viable way to recover the resource.

The US Forest Service (USFS) continued work to progress the Final Environmental Impact Statement and complete actions necessary for the land exchange. We continued to advance partnership discussions with several federally recognised Native American Tribes who are part of the formal consultation process.

We are also monitoring the Apache Stronghold versus USFS case held in the US Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals. While there is significant local support for the project, we respect the views of groups who oppose it and will continue our efforts to address and mitigate these concerns.

Resolution Copper Mine, United States
Resolution, United States

Rhodes Ridge

Pilbara, Western Australia

In October 2022, Rio Tinto (50%) and Wright Prospecting Pty Ltd (50%) agreed to modernise the joint venture covering the Rhodes Ridge project in the Eastern Pilbara, providing a pathway for development using Rio Tinto’s rail, port and power infrastructure. Rhodes Ridge contains 5.8 billion tonnes of high-grade Mineral Resources at an average grade of 62.3% Fe. The project’s total resource, 6.7 billion tonnes at an average grade of 61.6% Fe, represents approximately one third of our existing Resource base in the Pilbara5. A resource-drilling programme is currently underway to support future project studies.

The participants have commenced an Order of Magnitude study, conducted by Rio Tinto, which will consider the development of an operation before the end of the decade with initial plant capacity of up to 40 million tonnes annually, subject to the receipt of relevant approvals. We expect to complete the Rhodes Ridge Order of Magnitude study in 2023.

Pilbara, West Angelas
Pilbara, Western Australia


Salta Province, Argentina

Rincon is a large, undeveloped, lithium brine project located in the heart of the lithium triangle in the Salta Province of Argentina, an emerging hub for greenfield projects.

A long-life, scalable resource capable of producing battery-grade lithium carbonate from raw brine, the project will help us deliver this vital resource to the global energy industry while meeting our commitment to decarbonise our operations by 2050.

We are advancing the 3,000 tonne per year battery-grade lithium carbonate plant starter plant, however the full definition of the project, changes to scope and higher inflation have led to an increase in the capital estimate to $335 million (from $140 million). The learnings and design improvements will be carried over to the full-scale project. First saleable production is now expected at the end of 2024 (previously in the first half of 2024). Studies are continuing on the full-scale plant, which will have benefits of economies of scale, with the capital intensity, based on current stage of studies, forecast to be in line with regional lithium industry benchmarks.

Rincon Lithium Project, Argentina
Rincon, Argentina


Nzérékoré, Guinea

Simandou contains one of the world’s largest and richest high-grade iron ore deposits, demand for which is increasing as steelmakers look to reduce carbon emissions.

Simandou is set to diversify our strong iron ore portfolio, complementing our high-grade Iron Ore Company of Canada products and supporting the long-term attractiveness of our Pilbara Blend™ offering. Our managed joint venture, Rio Tinto Simfer, holds the rights to the two southern blocks of the Simandou deposit (blocks 3 and 4).

Negotiations continued to progress, to enable the co-development of rail and port infrastructure by Simfer, Winning Consortium Simandou and the Guinean State. The legal framework for the construction and operations phases will establish access rights, fiscal regime and schedule, as well as joint venture arrangements. We also continued to progress early works, including establishing accommodation camps to support continued mobilisation on both our mine and rail scope, earthworks and geotechnical drilling.

Simandou iron ore project, Guinea
Simandou, Guinea

Western Range

Pilbara, Western Australia

In September 2022, we agreed to form a joint venture with China Baowu Steel Group to develop the Western Range iron ore project in the Pilbara, Western Australia (Rio Tinto 54%, Baowu 46%)6. The mine will have a capacity of 25 million tonnes per year. The project includes construction of a primary crusher and an 18-kilometre conveyor connection to the Paraburdoo processing plant6. Construction continued in line with schedule during the half with site facilities completed and contractors mobilised, while we progressed bulk earthworks for the fixed plant and pre-strip earthworks for the mine.

Pilbara - Western Range
Western Range, Pilbara


The Paterson Province, Western Australia

In late 2017, we discovered copper-gold mineralisation at the Winu project in the Paterson Province in Western Australia.

We reported our first Indicated Mineral Resource in 2021, and an increased Mineral Resource in 2022. The pathway to first ore is expected to take longer than originally anticipated and remains subject to regulatory and other required approvals. We continue to strengthen our relationships and advance agreement making with our host Traditional Owner partners, the Nyangumarta and Martu groups. Planned drilling, fieldwork and study activities continue, strengthening the development pathway ahead of applications for regulatory and other required approvals.

Winu project
Winu, Western Australia

Zulti South

Richards Bay Minerals, Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa

The Zulti South project remains on full suspension. We approved the $463 million investment (our share is $343 million) in April 2019 to sustain RBM’s current capacity and extend the life of the mine.

RBM currently operates four mines in the Zulti North lease area, a mineral separation plant and smelting facility. The Zulti South mine is expected to underpin RBM’s supply of zircon and ilmenite.

Zulti South from the air
Zulti South, South Africa
  • Footnotes

    1 This production target is reported as total recoverable metal and is underpinned as to 100% by Probable Ore Reserves. These estimates of Mineral Resources and Ore Reserves were reported in a release to the ASX dated 27 September 2022 titled Rio Tinto Kennecott Mineral Resource and Ore Reserves and have been prepared by Competent Persons in accordance with the requirements of the JORC Code and the ASX Listing Rules.

    2 Wood Mackenzie copper equivalent cash cost curve (Q1 2023).

    3 The 500ktpa target (stated as recovered metal) for the Oyu Tolgoi underground and open pit mines is underpinned 17 per cent by Proved Ore Reserves and 83 per cent by Probable Ore Reserves for the years 2028–2036. The 350kpa production target for the following 5 years is underpinned 18 per cent by Proved Ore Reserves and 82 per cent by Probable Ore Reserves. These production targets have been scheduled from current mine designs by Competent Persons in accordance with the requirements of the Australasian Code for Reporting of Exploration Results, Minerals Resources and Ore Reserves, 2012 Edition (the JORC code).

    4 Rio Tinto Annual Results, published 22 February 2022.

    5 The Mineral Resource estimates for the Rhodes Ridge Joint Venture (JV) were reported in our 2020 Annual Report released to the Australian Securities Exchange (ASX) on 22 February 2021 (and form part of the Pilbara Mineral Resource estimates reported in our 2021 Annual Report released to the ASX on 24 February 2022). Mineral Resources are quoted in this release on a 100% basis, as dry in-situ tonnes. For more information, see page 33 in our 2022 Annual Report.

    6 Rio Tinto share includes 100% of funding costs for Paraburdoo plant upgrades.

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