Argyle landscape


Long before we start projects, we work with governments, Indigenous groups and local communities to plan the end of our operations in a way that leaves lasting benefits for our host communities.

For example, we work with governments to contribute to regional economic planning and look for ways to support entrepreneurship to help build diverse economies that can thrive once we have gone. We provide career support and training opportunities to help the local workforce – including our own – transition to new opportunities as operations wind down. And we work with local Indigenous groups to ensure areas are looked after for future generations – right down to the kind of plants we use to regenerate land. We progressively rehabilitate the land as we mine in places like Richards Bay Minerals, our operations in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, and our bauxite mines in Queensland, Australia.

We operate with closure in mind, incorporating closure into the design of new projects and looking for ways to optimise decommissioning, remediation and any long-term management obligations, such as water treatment.

With the oversight of the Board’s Sustainability Committee, we are working on closure plans for the next decade, with a particular focus on our Argyle diamond mine in Western Australia, which is set to close in late 2020.

  • Argyle Diamond Mine
  • Diavik Diamond Mine
  • ERA

Argyle Diamond Mine

Following the last production from the Argyle mine, we anticipate that it will take five years to decommission and dismantle the mine and undertake rehabilitation, followed by a further period of time for monitoring. Argyle will continue to employ people post-mining to work on rehabilitation and monitoring, continuing to pay wages and contributing to the local economy.

Diavik Diamond Mine

We are also committed to safely and responsibly closing our Diavik Diamond Mine in Canada and have planned for its closure from the outset. We will cease production at Diavik in 2025, at which time there will no diamonds left to economically mine. We are currently undertaking detailed closure planning studies that cover not only site reclamation but also employees, communities and business transition planning.


At Energy Resources of Australia’s (ERA) Ranger Mine in the Northern Territory, uranium mining and processing has now ended however a structured programme of progressive rehabilitation continues.

ERA’s Ranger Mine Closure Plan outlines the path for progressive rehabilitation, which began in 1995, with final rehabilitation to be completed by January 2026.

The mine is owned by Energy Resources of Australia (ERA), which is 86.3% owned by Rio Tinto. The Ranger Mine Closure Plan (MCP) is updated and submitted for ministerial approval annually. The MCP was developed, and continues to be updated, in consultation with regulators, scientific advisors and key stakeholders including the Gundjeihmi Aboriginal Corporation and the Northern Land Council, as representatives of the Mirarr Traditional Owners, and Northern Territory and Commonwealth Government agencies. Since 2012, ERA has spent more than A$642 million on rehabilitation and water management, to incorporate the Ranger mine into the surrounding Kakadu National Park.

Blair Ranford

After Argyle

The Next Chapter
In late 2020, after more than 30 years of operation, our iconic Argyle diamond mine will close. We are working closely with our employees during the transition to closure, to help them secure new opportunities inside or outside of Rio Tinto following the mine’s closure. We are offering employees the opportunity to improve, update or obtain new skills so they are prepared for the future. 


Blair Ranford is a safety support officer at Argyle, and shares his story about how we have helped him follow his passion, and pursue a new career after Argyle:

“I have been at Argyle for over a decade now, but we are heading towards closure and so we need to start thinking about what our life will be like after mining finishes.


My passion outside of work is filming wildlife. I have been very lucky to work in the mining industry and be able to travel all over the world: I have been to Africa a dozen times, and I have been to some very remote islands diving and filming sharks of all sorts.


The beauty of the support I have been given is that it is allowed me to go out and get my full commercial drone operator certificate. That means that, after Argyle closes, I am going to be able to have a real crack at filming wildlife as my career. It is pretty exciting!


After getting my certificate, I have been able to focus on using drones to film the marine life where I live about three hours south of Perth. I can capture them from a whole new perspective.


We are pretty lucky, we get whale migration going north and south. I have filmed blue whales – the biggest thing that has ever lived! – and we get dolphins, turtles and sharks (my favourite!). Filming something as incredible as a great white shark in clear, shallow water and being able to share that in a documentary form is pretty exciting! I have already been able to work with the likes of the Discovery Channel and National Geographic.


So Rio Tinto opened a pretty big door for me, and I’m very grateful for it. Who knows – with a bit of luck you might see me on the TV in a year or two!”

2019 Performance

We are in the process of developing asset closure strategies for our managed sites – in 2019, we developed strategies covering 14 sites across three product groups. Our strategies are the result of our analysis of all aspects of each site’s closure to ensure we assess and manage the longer-term impact of our activities to optimise the timing, cost and impacts of closure.

We will be transitioning a number of assets into closure over the next five years, including our Argyle diamond mine in Western Australia, which is set to close in late 2020, as well as the Ranger uranium mine, in the Northern Territory, Australia, set to close in 2021.

With this in mind, in 2019, we intensified both our closure planning and the resources dedicated to it. For example, today, we have a dedicated team conducting closure studies as well as a team supporting closure planning at our assets. We also developed a closure readiness framework this year, which helps sites nearing closure transition effectively, ensuring that all risks are well managed, and opportunities realised where possible.

We continue to engage stakeholders of our sites nearing closure – governments, Traditional Owners, employees and local communities, for example. Such engagement also helps us transfer the land in a way that optimises its use after mining comes to an end.

We are also continuing to rehabilitate and manage our historic legacy assets at various sites across the world, such as Kelian in Indonesia. In 2019, we developed a structured approach for reviewing our legacy portfolio and identifying opportunities to work with others to consider closure opportunities and risks.

At the end of 2019, closure provisions on our balance sheet totalled $11.1 billion (compared with $10 billion in 2018).

Small animal perched on rock

Legacy Sites

We also manage a number of historic sites – known as legacy sites – that we did not operate, but for which we are now responsible through acquisitions and mergers. We rehabilitate these sites and, where and when we can, transfer them to local authorities or third parties. In situations where we can not relinquish the site, we make sure it is in a safe and stable condition, and the cost of aftercare is appropriately provided.

As a member of the International Council of Mining & Metals, we contributed to the development of the ICMM Integrated Mine Closure Good Practice Guide. We are also leading two of the 2019-21 Closure Working Group projects – External Reporting Metrics and Key Performance Indicators.

Two Sumatran rhinos

Saving the Sumatran Rhino

Turning an old gold mine into a Rhino sanctuary
In 2017, our historic gold mine in Indonesia, Kelian, was assessed by the government and the World Wildlife Fund as an ideal location for the highly endangered Sumatran rhino. Part of the site has now been designated a Protection Forest and will be used as a sanctuary for housing and breeding rhino, with the aim of eventually releasing them into the wild.


Our Kelian team rehabilitated the 6,670-hectare gold mine site, including remediating waste dumps and building dams to protect ground and surface water from mine tailings, and converting areas that lay beneath the processing plant into a wetland.

It’s hoped the sanctuary could provide the lifeline that Kalimantan’s remaining Sumatran rhinos need to begin their recovery – and is just one example of the contribution that thoughtful closure of former mine sites can make.